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Instructional Intervention/Progress Monitoring (IIPM) Model and IIPM Pre/Referral Process for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

Emerging practices suggest any referral for special education evaluation and services for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD/ELL) students should occur only after the student participates in a pre/referral process that includes instructional intervention and progress monitoring in the general education and/or English Language Development (ELD) curriculum.  A pre/referral process is especially critical for CLD students who may have a suspected disability, as it provides a methodology to document student performance on culturally responsive and scientific, research-based (SBR) instructional interventions implemented within the general classroom and, if needed, in the ELD program.